Review: Legalese and their Plain English equivalent 3

Step 1: Click "Next" to show the legalese; Step 2: Click "Next" again
to show the legalese and its equivalent, simpler word; Repeat Steps 1 and 2.
[1] accord (verb)give
[2] additionalmore
[3] additionallyalso
[4] adjacent (to)next (to), near
[5] adjudicatedetermine, try
[6] affordedgiven
[7] aforementionedmentioned previously (or omit)
[8] ambitreach, scope
[9] any and allall
[10] approximatelyabout
[11] ascertainfind out
[12] assisthelp
[13] as toabout
[14] as well asand
[15] case at barthis case
[16] attempt (verb)try
[17] ceasestop
[18] circumstances in whichwhen, where
[18] cognizant ofaware, knows
[19] commencestart
[21] concealhide
[22] consensus of opinionconsensus
[23] consequenceresult
[24] contiguous tonext to
[25] counsellawyer
[26] deemfind, believe
[27] demonstrateshow
[28] desirewant
[29] donategive
[30] echelonlevel
[31] elucidateexplain, clarify
[32] endeavor (verb)try
[33] ensuetake place, follow
[34] evidence (verb)show, demonstrate
[35] evinceshow
[36] exclusivelyonly
[37] exhibit (verb)show, demonstrate
[38] exit (verb)leave
[39] expeditehurry
[40] facilitatehelp
[41] foregoingthese
[42] forthwithimmediately
[43] frequentlyoften
[44] fundamentalbasic
[45] has a negative impacthurts, harms
[46] indicateshow, say, mean
[47] individual (noun)person
[48] inquireask
[49] locatefind
[50] mannerway
[51] methodologymethod
[52] modifychange
[53] narratesay
[54] negatively affecthurt, harm, injure
[55] notifytell
[56] notwithstandingdespite
[57] numerousmany
[58] objective (noun)goal
[59] observesee, watch
[60] obtainget
[61] owing tobecause
[62] permitlet, allow
[63] personnelpeople
[64] pertains torefers to, belongs to
[65] possesshave
[66] post hochindsight
[67] prior tobefore
[68] procureget
[69] providegive
[70] provided thatif, but
[71] provision of lawlaw
[72] purportclaim, intend
[73] referred to ascalled
[74] render assistancehelp
[75] requireneed
[76] respondanswer
[77] retainkeep
[78] stipulatessays
[79] subsequentlater
[80] subsequent toafter
[81] subsequentlyafter, later
[82] substantiateprove
[83] sufficientenough
[84] sufficient number ofenough
[85] terminationend
[86] the case at barthis case
[87] the fact thatthat
[88] the instant casethis case
[89] the manner in whichhow
[90] uponon
[91] utilizeuse
[92] verbatim word for word
[93] was awareknew
[94] whereassince, although

Exercises created by Atty. Gerry T. Galacio; all rights reserved. You can freely use these exercises, but you must not upload them to any website or the cloud. For comments, questions, corrections, or suggestions, email


Exercises created with freeware Hot Potatoes v. 6.3 from the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada.


Family Matters (complete text of the Family Code of the Philippines; frequently asked questions; relevant laws like RA 9262; legal procedures and Rules of Court)


Legal Updates (in-depth discussions of issues affecting the Filipino family, legal procedures, support, inheritance, etc.): Plain Language / Plain English for government offices, private companies, schools, and organizations; Clear, concise English for effective legal writing; Legal procedures in civil and criminal cases; Heirs and inheritances

Better English resources and exercises (free resources on grammar, pronunciation, spelling, writing, vocabulary, idioms, reading comprehension, public speaking, etc.)


Be a better writer or editor through StyleWriter 4: this software checks 10,000 words in 12 seconds for hundreds of style and English usage issues like wordy and complex sentences, passive voice, nominalization, jargon, clichés, readability, spelling, etc. StyleWriter 4 has a graded 200,000 word and phrase dictionary, covering most of the words you will ever use in writing.


StyleWriter 4 is widely used in the US federal government (for example, Environmental Protection Agency). It is used in banks, law offices, and by professionals from various fields. It is fully customizable and comes with three versions: USA, UK, and Australian. StyleWriter 4 can edit memos, articles, essays, business letters, speeches, thesis, dissertations, books (fiction or non-fiction), and all kinds of corporate communications.