Avoid “of” phrases


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Ply your possessives: “The foregoing constitutes the order and decision of the court.”“This (or the above) is the judge’s opinion.”
Sentence inversion: “I’m a member of the Association of the Bar of the City of New York.”“I’m a New York City Bar Association member.”
Invert or rearrange: "Because of Judge B's status as a judge""Because Judge B is a judge"
Nix nominalizations: “He committed a violation of the Penal Law.”“He violated the Penal Law.”
Delete “of” after “all”: “All of New York loves the New York State Bar Association."“All New York loves the New York State Bar Association."
Delete “of” after "all" or “both” except when a pronoun follows.(“all of us studied law”; “both of us studied law”).
Delete “of” after “alongside,” “inside” (unless you mean “in less than”), “off,” and “outside.”Use “except for” to replace “outside of.”
As of: “The attorney has not arrived as of yet.”“The attorney has not arrived yet.” Or “The attorney has not yet arrived.”
“By means of”"by"
“During the course of”“during”
“For the period of”“for”
“For the purpose of”“for” or “to”
“The issue of (or as to) whether”“whether”
“On the grounds of”“because”
Excise “of” abstractions.“type of,” “kind of,” “matter of,” “state of,” “factor of,” “system of,” “sort of,” “nature of.”
A negative phrase using an “of” becomes, with a prefix, a “dis-,” “in-,” “non-,” or “un-.”Example:

“The lack of consistency” or a “negative” anything

becomes (depending on your meaning)

“The inconsistency” or “dis-X,” “non-X,” or “un-X,” depending on the word.
Delete “of” in dates and years:“Ten days of notice.”


“Ten days’ notice”

“Fifty-one years of age.”


“Fifty-one years old”;

“July of 2006.”


“July 2006” (not “July, 2006”).

Exercises created by Atty. Gerry T. Galacio; all rights reserved. You can freely use these exercises, but you must not upload them to any website or the cloud. For comments, questions, corrections, or suggestions, email gtgalacio@yahoo.com


Exercises created with freeware Hot Potatoes v. 6.3 from the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada.


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